June 2022 Issue
IN THIS ISSUE:
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1
LA 200, Maxim 200, Biomycin (oxytetracyline 200 mg/ml) - Over-the-counter broad-spectrum antibiotic. Soon to be prescription. Thick (use an 18 gauge needle and give SQ over the ribs) and may sting. Oxytretracycline 200 mg/ml must be used to treat abortion "storms." No vaccines are available to treat abortion diseases and no off-label vaccines are effective in preventing abortion diseases in goats. Oxytetracycline 200 mg/ml is the goat producer's only choice. Also used to treat Pinkeye, even in pregnant does, as an abortion organism can cause one strain of Pinkeye. Used both injectably and topically (in non-ulcerated eyes) for Pinkeye. Sometimes effective in treating hoof rot/hoof scald infections. Use 1 cc per 20 lbs. body weight SQ daily for a minimum of five consecutive days. The non-sting version of oxytetracycline 200 mg/ml is called Biomycin. Oxytetracycline 200 mg/ml is sold under several brand names; check the content label for correct 200 mg/ml strength. Turns a dark red when opened and air enters the bottle, but if kept under controlled climatic conditions and used before the expiration date, it should work fine. There are versions that are 300 mg/ml and labeled as single-use. Don't believe it. Use antibiotics for five consecutive days.
Lactated Ringers Solution - Vet prescription. For rehydrating kids and young goats. Comes in IV bag but use SQ. Using a 60 cc syringe with an 18 gauge needle attached, draw up LRS, warm in a pot of water, check temperature as you would a bottle of milk for proper heat, and inject 30 cc under the skin (SQ) at each shoulder to treat hypothermic newborns. Can be used several times a day until the goat's electrolytes are in balance. Will be absorbed by the goat's body very quickly if dehydration is present. Can be used in conjunction with oral electrolytes (BounceBack/ReSorb). Refrigerate when storing or strange things will grow inside the bag. A must-have product.
Lime sulphur dip 97.8%. Used topically for mites and staph infections on the skin.
Lutalyse -- Prescription injectable. Used to cycle does into heat or induce abortion in doe bred you didn't want bred. Give 2 cc on the seventh (7th) day after observed breeding. Do NOT repeat.
Marquis - See Toltrazuril for cost-effective alternative.
Masti-Clear - Procaine-penicillin-based teat infusion for lactating does to treat mastitis.
Metronidazole. Brand name Flagyl. Antibiotic for treating Giardia in goats.
Micotil - Never use Micotil on goats. Cattle antibiotic causes quick heart attack and death.
Milk of Magnesia -- Over-the-counter laxative product that is useful for constipation and toxicity reactions (to move toxic materials from the body), including bloat, ruminal acidosis, overeating disease, and Floppy Kid Syndrome in conjunction with other necessary medications. Use as oral drench at a rate of 15 cc per 60 lbs. body weight every four to six hours until the feces goes from normal to clumpy then back to normal 'pills.' Always keep the animal hydrated with electrolytes (BounceBack/ReSorb or equivalent) when using Milk of Magnesia or other laxatives. Useful with mastitis by increasing magnesium levels in goat's body. Keep Milk of Magnesia on hand at all times.
Multi Min 90- Vet prescription. Cobalt-blue colored injectable liquid that must be used sparingly in goats suffering from severe mineral deficiencies. Chelated (slow release) combination of zinc, manganese, selenium, and copper. Helps with weak labor contractions. Overdosing is easy; this medication builds up in fatty tissues. Dose SQ only.
Mineral Oil - Over-the-counter laxative product. Because mineral oil has no taste, the goat does not recognize mineral oil as a substance to be swallowed and can aspirate it into the lungs. Must be stomach tubed. If stomach tube is not immediately available, mix mineral oil with Goat Nutridrench or Karo syrup to add flavor and slowly orally drench the goat.
Molasses/Karo Syrup - Use orally with kids when quick energy is needed. See my article on Weak Kids on my website. Can be substituted for propylene glycol with ketotic does.
Kopertox - Over-the-counter product for hoof rot and hoof scald. Blue-green liquid for topical application as a "liquid bandage." Use with Oxytetracycline 200 mg/ml injections.
Nasalgen IP - Intra-nasal vaccine of short duration. Use to prevent shipping fever.
Naxcel (ceftiofur sodium) - Vet prescription. Broad-spectrum antibiotic used for respiratory illnesses (pneumonia). Comes in two bottles: One bottle contains a powder which must be kept refrigerated even in powder form, and the other bottle is sterile water. When the two are mixed, they keep for only seven days. Draw syringes in dosages of 1/2 cc, 1 cc, 2 cc, and 3 cc, put needle caps on them, place the filled syringes in a ziplock bag, label and date it, and put the bag in the freezer. Syringes thaw quickly, but hold the needle cap upright, because the medication will settle into the needle cap and will be lost when the needle cap is removed.
Newborn kids with respiratory distress or E.Coli infections need a minimum dosage IM of 1/2 cc daily for five consecutive days. A 100 pound goat needs at least 5-6 cc of Naxcel IM over the five-day course of treatment. I no longer use Naxcel but instead use Excenel RTU, the ready-to-use equivalent product that doesn't require refrigeration or mixing, or Nuflor Gold.
Neomycin Sulfate - Vet prescription. Sulfa-based antibiotic for use with scouring kids and adults when Coccidiosis is not the underlying illness. Works effectively against E.Coli and other digestive-system bacterial infections. For kids, give 3 cc orally every 12 hours until diarrhea has stopped and feces is normal. For adult goats, use 5 cc to 10 cc orally and as directed for usage in kids. Do not overdose; constipation can result. Do not stop diarrhea until you know its cause. Sometimes diarrhea is the body's way of eliminating toxins.
Niacin (Vitamin B3) - Give 1000 mg daily orally (crushed and dissolved) to does having weak labor contractions until kidding occurs.
Nolvasan - Bolus used inside uterus after difficult delivery to prevent metritis or vaginitis.
Nuflor Gold (florfenicol) - Vet prescription. My preferred antibiotic for respiratory problems, including pneumonia. Can also be used try to keep mastitis from becoming systemic. I tend to use Nuflor on adults and Excenel RTU on kids, but they are interchangeable. This is a thick liquid, so use Luer Lock syringes, or the needle may blow off the syringe. Dosage is 6 cc per 100 lbs bodyweight given IM for five consecutive days; sick newborn and very young kids should receive no less than 1/2 cc.
Oxytocin - Vet prescription. Used when a doe has not passed her afterbirth within 24-36 hours of kidding. Dosage is 1-1/2 cc per 100 lbs. body weight.
Penicillin, Benzathine (long-acting penicillin) - Over-the-counter antibiotic. Has been overused and is often no longer effective. Dosage is 5 cc per 100 lbs. body weight IM for five consecutive days. Must be refrigerated. Do NOT use this type of penicillin if Listeriosis or Goat Polio is suspected. I don't keep this penicillin in stock any longer.
Subscribe FREE now! Monthly issues with new articles and other educational information on meat goat health, nutrition, and management written by Suzanne W. Gasparotto of Onion Creek Ranch and Pat Cotten of Bending Tree Ranch. In all cases, it is your responsibility to obtain veterinary services and advice before using any of the information provided in these articles. Neither Suzanne Gasparotto nor Pat Cotten are veterinarians. None of the contributors to this website will be held responsible for the use of any information contained herein.
Penicillin, Procaine (300,000 IU) - Procaine Penicillin must be used in double the normal dosage in conjunction with Thiamine (Vitamin B1) in the treatment of Listeriosis and Goat Polio. At normal 5 cc per 100 lb dosing, it is also used to treat infection resulting from injuries, bites, and after difficult birthings. Over-the-counter product but soon to be vet prescription. Must be refrigerated. Always have lots of this product on hand.
Peppermint Oil Cream (Cai-Pan) - Topical application for congested and/or mastitic udders.
Pepto Bismol (pink bismuth) - Over-the-counter product to help with irritation/distress caused by diarrhea in both kids and adults. Before using Pepto-Bismol when diarrhea is present, first determine the cause of the problem. Diarrhea is a symptom of many problems, not an illness in itself; its presence can be helpful in instances like overeating disease. Use up to 2 cc every four to six hours for newborns; 5 cc for kids approaching one month old; as much as 10 to 15 cc for adults. See my article on Diarrhea on the Articles page of www.tennesseemeatgoats.com.
Pirsue - Vet prescription mastitis medication. Expensive but excellent product.
Pneumonia Vaccines: Presponse HM and Poly Bac Somnus - Both vaccines are newer than and provide better protection against pneumonia than the Colorado Serum product mentioned below; they are also more expensive. I use Presponse HM and the dosage is 1 cc for goats under 60 lbs and 2 cc for goats over 60 lbs, with a two injections 21 to 30 days apart the first time and annually thereafter. The extra cost is reduced by the lesser amount of vaccine needed for the 60 lb & under goats. If pneumonia is a problem in your herd, use these newer products.
Pneumonia Vaccine (Mannheimia Haemolytica Pasteurella Multocide Bacterin) - Over-the-counter injectable pneumonia vaccine by Colorado Serum. This is a very old vaccine made for goats but it isn't very effective. Requires two initial injections of 2 cc each 30 days apart for all young goats and any new purchases brought onto the property regardless of age, then booster annually thereafter. Give first injection in conjunction with first deworming and first CD/T vaccination. Repeat 30 days later then annually thereafter. Dosage is 2 cc for all goats, regardless of age, sex, weight, or breed.
Polyserum or Bovi Sera - Over-the-counter injectable immune system boosters. Give SQ. Use with any ill or unthrifty goat. Give to young kids that did not receive adequate colostrum.
Primor (Sulfadimethoxine & Ormetoprim in 5:1 ratio)- Vet prescription. Oral sulfa-based antibiotic. Tablets sized by weight of animal for gut-related infections, including Coccidiosis. Tablets are scored by animal weight for easy dosing. Primor 120 is for 5-15 lb goats; Primor 240, 10-30 lb goats; Primor 600, 25-50 lb goats; and Primor 1200, 50-100 lb goats. Give two times the appropriate weight's dosage the first day, and then dose to the goat's weight for the next 9 consecutive days.
Probiotics, Oral - Over-the-counter oral ruminant gel which should be used after the completion of antibiotic therapy, treatment for diarrhea (scours), and daily when goats are in shipment. Helps lessen stress and settle the stomach. Keep refrigerated in warm climates.
Proplyene Glycol - Over-the-counter liquid for ketosis in does. Provides quick energy. Comes in one-gallon jugs. Use 50-60 cc orally very slowly twice a day for an average-sized adult doe until she begins eating. Mix with Goat Nutri Drench or Karo syrup so the goat can taste it and know to swallow. If this product is not available, use molasses or Karo syrup. Freezes at temperatures well above 32*F, so store indoors under controlled temperature.
Rally or Recovr - Injectable antihistamine for toxicity problems. Vet prescription.
Red Cell - Over-the-counter flavored oral iron supplement made for horses. Dosage is 4 cc orally given daily for at least 30 days. Use in treating anemia to rebuild red blood cells.
Resflor Gold - Prescription antibiotic that contains some Banamine. Resflor Gold supposedly has a long-acting effect, reducing required number of injections. However, goats MUST have antibiotics daily for 5 consecutive days because of fast metabolism. Use Nuflor Gold instead.
Robitussin DM - Over-the-counter oral medication for humans that helps with chest congestion, even when caused by onset pneumonia, with goats. MUST be used in conjunction with appropriate injectable antibiotic like Nuflor Gold or Excenel RTU.
Safeguard (Panacur) dewormer - White-colored dewormer. No longer kills stomach worms in most of USA. Used to kill tapeworms. Used to treat Meningeal Deerworm infection.
Spectoguard ScourChek - If still available, this prescription sulfa-based antibiotic product to control diarrhea in kids. Usage with adult goats may stop the peristaltic action of the gut. Follow label directions when dosing this pinkish-red liquid into the goat's mouth. Do NOT stop scouring until you figure out the cause; diarrhea can be helpful in eliminating toxins.
Sterile Water - Vet prescription. Used in mixing medications.
Sulfadimethoxazine with Trimethoprim (SMZ) - Sulfa-based oral prescription antibiotic. Available in liquid and tablets. I use liquid SMZ with kids and the big easily-dissolved tablets with adults. Tablet dosage is 1 tablet per 20 lbs bodyweight (5 tablets per 100 lbs). Use to treat watery diarrhea and other gut-related illnesses. Used with Baytril 100, SMZ is synergistic (better than by itself) in treating E Coli and other difficult to cure infections. Excellent product. Must have in stock in your medicine chest.
Synergized DeLice or generic equivalent - Over-the-counter product. This permethrin-based oily liquid should be applied topically along the backbone from base of neck to base of tail. (This back drench works on goats because external parasites are the target; back drenches don't work for treating internal parasites like stomach worms.)
Follow the directions carefully, and do not use on kids under 3 months of age and pregnant does. Topical back drench dosage should never exceed 3 ounces on the biggest and heaviest of goats. I recycle a permanent wave squeeze bottle with applicator tip to apply this product. The bottle tip is just the right size.
For kids under three months of age and pregnant does, use a kitten-safe or puppy-safe powdered flea control product or carefully apply 5% Sevin dust. These products contain pyrethrins, which are much safer for very young animals. Cylence is a comparable topical product used to kill lice on adult goats.
Tagamet - Over-the-counter product for gut-related pain resulting from illnesses like coccidiosis. Dosage is one half of a Tagamet HR200 (200 mg) for 3-5 days.
Terramycin - Over-the-counter product. Ophthalmic ointment used to treat Pinkeye, particularly in ulcerated eyes.
Tetanus Anti-toxin- Over-the-counter product for immediate and short-term protection against tetanus (lockjaw) when the problem exists. Tetanus is fatal if not promptly treated. Comes in single-dose 1500 unit vials; use the entire 1500 unit vial IM for adults; use half the 1500 unit vial for kids. No sooner than five days after this medication is last used, you must re-vaccinate with tetanus toxoid or CD/T (the complete two-injection series given 30 days apart) to reinstate long-term protection. Keep refrigerated.
Theodur - Vet prescription. Used to clear air passages when bronchitis exists. Precise dosage is not known for goats, but I have, under vet direction and supervision, used 1/2 tablet per day on a 15-20 pound kid. Theodur suppresses the appetite; you must make sure that the animal is kept hydrated.
Thiamine (Vitamin B1) - Vet prescription. Strength must be 100 mg/ml. Used with any goat that is off-feed. Also used to treat goat polio and listeriosis. Dosage is 4 cc per 100 pounds bodyweight up to three times per day IM, or SQ.
Thrush Buster - Topical product to treat and prevent hoof scald (between toes).
ToDay (cephapirin sodium)- Over-the-counter product for mastitis treatment in lactating does. Milk out the udder and infuse one tube of To-Day into each teat for three to five consecutive days. Use the alcohol wipe provided to clean the teat thoroughly before infusing medication to avoid introducing new bacteria into an already-infected udder.
Toltrazuril - This is a close "relative" of the expensive Marquis and Baycox for treating Coccidiosis. I have never used it but am told but several goat producers that they find it quite effective, dosing one time at one cc per five pounds body weight. It is a one-time oral dosage of 1 cc per 5 lbs bodyweight preventative and 1 cc per 3 lbs bodyweight curative treatment. OTC product available at www.horseprerace.com.
ToMorrow (cephapirin benzathine)- Over-the-counter treatment for mastitis in dry does.
Triple Antibiotic Opthalmic Ointment - Vet prescription. Use topically to treat Pinkeye, particularly in ulcerated eyes.
Tylan 200 (tylosin) - If still available, an over-the counter antibiotic for respiratory problems. Use 1 cc per 25 lbs. body weight for five consecutive days intramuscularly (IM). The prescription products Nuflor Gold and Excenel RTU are far more effective than Tylan 200. I have never used this product.
Universal Animal Antidote Gel - Give orally when toxicity is suspected or diagnosed.
Valbazen - Over-the-counter white-colored dewormer. Can cause abortions in pregnant does if used in first trimester of pregnancy. For safety, never use on pregnant does. Kills tapeworms; does NOT kill stomach worms. Dosage is 1 cc per 25 lbs. bodyweight given orally.
Vitamin B1 (thiamine) - Vet prescription. See Thiamine for uses and dosages.
Vitamine B-12 - Vet prescription. This red-colored injectable liquid is essential for use with goats who are anemic. Stimulates appetite. Administer 4 cc per 100 lbs. body weight IM.
All medications should be stored inside in a temperature-controlled environment away from sunlight. Some medications also require refrigeration.
This listing is not comprehensive, but is a good overview of medications available for goat health problems. I am NOT a vet. I do NOT encourage anyone to use these products and/or dosages without supervision and direction of a qualified goat veterinarian. I encourage goat producers to find a qualified goat vet and develop a working relationship with that professional.
This is what has worked for me with my goats. Many variables can affect the usefulness of this information, some of which may include breed, sex, age, nutritional and reproductive status of the goat, climatic conditions and general cleanliness under which the goats live, knowledge and skills possessed by the goat producer, and a host of other items. Consider this listing to be a guide. Remember, what works for me may NOT work for you in your goat-production operation.
Suzanne W. Gasparotto, ONION CREEK RANCH, Texas Revised 6.6.22